NUVotes

Northwestern's comprehensive 50-state voter-registration hub

2020 Primary Elections Education Guide

2020 is here! From February through September, states will hold Primary Elections to decide the major party nominees for the General Election in November. Use this guide to learn more about the upcoming elections and how you can participate.

  • What Is a Primary?

    Why Should I Vote in the Primaries?

  • When Is My State's Primary?

    Should I Vote in Illinois or in My Home State?

  • How Do I Register & Vote?

    FAQs About Registration & Voting in All 50 States

  • How Can I Make an Informed Decision?

    What's On My Ballot? How Do I Decide?

What Is a Primary Election?

As you probably know, political parties play a central role in elections in the United States. Before we get to the general election in November, each party has to choose which candidate it will nominate for president and for other important federal, state, and local offices. That’s what primaries are for! During primary elections, voters in each state get to decide who their party’s nominee should be for each office. The winner of the primary for each party will go on to the general election in November.

 

Why Should I Vote in the Primaries?

By the time the general election rolls around, you won’t have many options. There will be one Democrat, one Republican, and possibly an independent or third party candidate for each office. That’s not a lot to choose from! If you vote in the primary, you get to have a say in who your party will nominate. That means you’ll have a better chance of liking your choices in the general election, and your party’s nominees will better represent your preferences. Also, for many state and local races, where one party has a strong advantage over the other in the general election, the primary may be where the most meaningful decisions are made.

 

Learn More About the Primaries

How does the presidential primary process work?

In order to determine the Democratic and Republican nominees for president, the parties each hold a series of elections – caucuses or primaries in each state – in which voters express their preference among the candidates running for their party’s nomination.

These elections happen state by state, from February through June. Based on the results of each state’s vote, delegates are awarded to the party’s national convention. States with larger populations have more delegates than states with smaller populations. So in order to become their party’s nominee, a candidate doesn’t have to win the most states, they have to win the most delegates.

After the primaries are over, the delegates from each state go to their party’s national convention to vote on the party’s nominee for president. The delegates vote in a way that reflects the primary results in their state, which means the nominee is often clear well before the convention, based on the delegate count. The presidential nominees also announce their vice presidential running mates, and the general election season begins.

Are primaries only for president?

No! States are also holding primaries for other important federal, state, and local offices, including U.S. Senators and Representatives, Governors, other state executives and legislators, and more. See ‘What’s on my ballot?’ to learn how to preview the offices on your ballot and educate yourself on the candidates and issues.

Who can vote in a primary? Do I have to be registered as a Democrat or Republican?

It depends. Who is eligible to vote in a primary varies by state and sometimes by party. 

Some states have open primaries, which means you don’t have to be registered as a Democrat or Republican to participate; any registered voter can choose any party’s primary ballot.

Many states have closed primaries, which means you must be a registered Democrat or Republican to participate in that party’s primary. Others have semi-closed primaries, in which unaffiliated voters can participate in any party’s primary, but voters registered with a party affiliation must choose that party’s ballot.

In some states, the Democratic and Republican parties may have different rules for who can participate in their primaries. And a few states use a top-two or nonpartisan system, where all candidates are listed on the same ballot regardless of party.

Learn what type of primary your state is holding for its Presidential Primary or State Primary.

My state has a caucus instead of a primary. What’s the difference?

Both caucuses and primaries have the same result – to help the Democratic and Republican parties choose their nominee for president – but they go about it in different ways. A caucus is an in-person meeting where party members come together to discuss, debate, and choose a candidate, often through a series of votes. Because of this in-person format, caucuses typically do not allow for vote-by-mail or absentee voting. A primary is a traditional secret ballot election, and typically allows for vote-by-mail or absentee voting. Usually when you hear people refer to “the primaries” they are talking about both types of elections. We also use the general term throughout this guide.

Why does my state have more than one primary date listed?

The presidential primary process is organized by the political parties and is exclusively for the office of president. In most states, the Democratic and Republican presidential primaries are on the same day, but in some states, they might take place on different days.

States also organize primaries to determine nominees for other federal, state, and local offices. In some states, these are held at the same time as the presidential primary, on the same ballot. Other states might hold a presidential preference caucus or primary, and then a separate state primary. There might be other runoff elections or special elections scheduled as well.

See When Is My Primary? and What’s On My Ballot? to learn more about your state’s primaries.

Why doesn’t my state have a Republican primary this year?

In some states, the Republican Party has decided to cancel its presidential primaries this year. That means that the Republican delegates from those states will automatically vote to nominate President Trump. States without a Republican presidential primary are Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Kansas, Nevada, South Carolina, and Virginia. State primaries will still be held in those states, with many other important federal, state, and local offices on the ballot. Depending on the state, you can still vote for Republican nominees for U.S. Senator and Representatives, Governor, other state executives and legislators, and more.

When Is My State’s Primary?

The Illinois Primary Election will be held on Tuesday, March 17, 2020.

In other states, presidential primaries will be held between February and June 2020, and state primaries may continue through September 2020. View a calendar of Primary Election Dates by State to look up your state’s primary date(s) and registration and absentee ballot request deadlines. Or view a Primary Election Calendar by Date to see the 2020 presidential primary schedule chronologically.

 

Where Should I Vote? Should I Vote In Illinois or In My Home State?

That’s completely up to you! As a college student, you have the legal right to register and vote at either your permanent address or your campus address. You might want to consider where you feel more connected to your community or more informed about local issues, where you feel your vote will make the greatest impact, or how you want to participate (in person or via mail). Either way, we can help you navigate the process.

 

How Do I Register & Vote?

In Illinois
In Other States

Registering and Voting in Illinois

Registering

Who can vote in the Illinois primary?

You can vote in the Illinois primary election if you are registered to vote at an Illinois address.

Do I have to be registered as a Democrat or a Republican?

No. When you arrive at your polling place, you will be asked to declare which party’s ballot you would like to vote for this primary. You may change this selection from primary to primary. You may also choose a non-partisan ballot, which will contain referenda only. Note that your choice of party ballot may become part of your voter record, and may be made available to political parties and candidates for future elections.

How do I know if or where I’m registered?

You can check your registration status online through our online Check Registration Tool, or through your local election authority. Check the Voter Information Search Tools for Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), Chicago, or elsewhere in Illinois.

What if my election authority says I’m not registered?

If you registered recently, it often takes several weeks for registration requests to be processed. If your record cannot be located, or you have concerns about your registration, contact your local election authority. For Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), e-mail Voter.Reg@cookcountyil.gov or call (312)603-0906. For Chicago, e-mail cboe@chicagoelections.gov or call (312)269-7900. If you run into a problem, don’t panic – you still have the option to register and vote in Illinois through Election Day.

How can I register to vote or update my registration with my current address?
By Mail
(Come to CCE to Print & Mail)
February 18th
(Postmarked)
Online
(Requires an IL Drivers License or State ID)
March 1st

If you have passed these deadlines, it is not too late! Register and vote on the same day, during early voting or on Election Day.

Is it too late to register to vote?

No. If you haven’t registered yet, it is not too late!

Grace Period Registration & Voting
Grace Period Registration allows you to register and vote on the same day, during the Early Voting period up to the day before the election. Note that if you choose Grace Period Registration, you must cast your ballot immediately after registering.

If you live in Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), you can register and vote at the Evanston Civic Center (2100 Ridge Ave, Room G300) during the following dates and times:

March 2nd – March 8th
Monday–Friday 9am–5pm
Saturday 9am–5pm
Sunday 10am–4pm

March 9th – March 16th
Monday–Friday 9am–7pm
Saturday 9am–5pm
Sunday 10am–4pm

If you live in Chicago, you can register and vote at any of 51 locations throughout the city, during comparable dates and times. See Early Voting Locations & Hours for Chicago Residents.

To register to vote through Grace Period Registration, you must present TWO forms of ID. You will be required to cast your ballot immediately after registering.

Election Day Registration & Voting
You can also register to vote on Election Day at your polling place with TWO forms of ID. However, you may wish to register and vote before Election Day, to avoid the possibility of longer wait times.

What do I need to bring to register?

To register to vote, you must present TWO forms of ID:

  1. Something that proves your identity: A Wildcard, driver’s license, state ID, passport, birth certificate, or social security card
  2. Something that shows your current address: Postmarked mail, a utility bill, a bank or credit card statement, a pay stub, a lease or rental contract, or in Evanston, a printout from CAESAR that shows your local address (CAESAR > Main Menu > Personal Profile > My Addresses)
I am currently registered at my permanent address. Can I change my registration to my campus address?

Yes. Students have a legal right to register and vote at either their permanent address or their campus address.

Voting

Where do I vote? Where is my polling place? When are the polls open?

You have the option to either early vote or vote on Election Day. To vote on Election Day (Tuesday, March 17th), you must go to your assigned polling place.

To find your polling place, use the Voter Information Search Tools for Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), Chicago, or elsewhere in Illinois.

If you are registered to vote with an on-campus address, your polling place is likely either Patten Gym (2407 Sheridan) or Parkes Hall (1870 Sheridan).

On Election Day, all polling places are open from 6 AM to 7 PM.

Can I vote early?

Yes. Early voting allows you to avoid lines at the polls on Election Day by casting your ballot ahead of time, at a time that is convenient for you.

If you live in Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), you can vote at the Evanston Civic Center (2100 Ridge Ave, Room G300) during the following dates and times:

March 2nd – March 8th
Monday–Friday 9am–5pm
Saturday 9am–5pm
Sunday 10am–4pm

March 9th – March 16th
Monday–Friday 9am–7pm
Saturday 9am–5pm
Sunday 10am–4pm

If you live in Chicago, you can early vote at any of 51 locations throughout the city, during comparable dates and times. See Early Voting Locations & Hours for Chicago Residents.

If you are registered in another county in Illinois, see Early Voting Locations & Hours by County (be sure to choose 2020 General Primary).

You can register to vote on all early voting days; however, you must present TWO forms of ID to do so.

Can I vote by mail?

If you are already registered to vote in Illinois, you have the option to Vote by Mail. Request a Vote By Mail Ballot for Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), Chicago, or elsewhere in Illinois. You must request a Vote by Mail Ballot by March 12th, though you are encouraged to apply as early as possible to make sure you receive your ballot on time. You will be mailed a paper ballot to complete, sign, and mail or deliver back. Your ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. Stop by CCE if you need help returning your Vote by Mail ballot.

If you have requested a Vote by Mail Ballot but have not yet received one, contact your local election authority to check on the status of your ballot application. If you encounter further issues, consider voting in person – you still have the option to either early vote or vote on Election Day.

What do I need to bring to vote? What can I take with me into the voting booth?

If you registered to vote by mail, and are voting for the first time at your current registration address, you may be required to show ID (including a current photo ID and proof of residence) to vote. Otherwise, in Illinois, you are NOT required to show ID to vote. However, we recommend bringing a Wildcard or other photo ID just in case.

You are allowed to bring notes or sample ballots with you to the voting booth and to look up information on your phone. However, in Illinois, you may NOT take any photos of your ballot or inside the polling place.

What if I don’t have my Voter Registration Card?

You do NOT need your Voter Registration Card to vote. However, you must be registered. Make sure to verify your registration status through our online Check Registration Tool, or through your local election authority. Check the Voter Information Search Tools for Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County), Chicago, or elsewhere in Illinois. If you run into a problem, don’t panic – you still have the option to register and vote in Illinois through Election Day.

Registering and Voting in Other States

Registering

Who can vote in my state’s primary? Do I have to be registered as a Democrat or Republican?

It depends. Who is eligible to vote in a primary varies by state and sometimes by party. 

Some states have open primaries, which means you don’t have to be registered as a Democrat or Republican to participate; any registered voter can choose any party’s primary ballot.

Many states have closed primaries, which means you must be a registered Democrat or Republican to participate in that party’s primary. Others have semi-closed primaries, in which unaffiliated voters can participate in any party’s primary, but voters registered with a party affiliation must choose that party’s ballot.

In some states, the Democratic and Republican parties may have different rules for who can participate in their primaries. And a few states use a top-two or nonpartisan system, where all candidates are listed on the same ballot regardless of party.

Learn what type of primary your state is holding for its Presidential Primary or State Primary.

How do I know if or where I’m registered, or whether I'm registered with a political party?

You can check your registration status online through our online Check Registration Tool, or through your local election authority.

What if my election authority says I’m not registered?

If you registered recently, it often takes several weeks for registration requests to be processed. If your record cannot be located, or you have concerns about your registration, contact your local election authority. If you run into a problem, don’t panic – you may still have time to register.

How can I register to vote or update my registration with my current address or choice of political party?

First, make sure there is still time to register or update your registration before your state’s deadline. Most states have voter registration deadlines between 7 and 30 days prior to each election, though some states allow voters to register at the polls on Election Day. To view the registration deadlines for your state, see Registration Deadlines by State (find your state and click ‘Check Deadlines’).

To register or update your registration in any state, come to the Center for Civic Engagement (1813 Hinman Ave in Evanston, Monday–Friday 9am–5pm), or use our online Voter Registration Tool. (If the submission of paper forms or any other steps are required, NU Votes can assist with printing, mailing, copies of IDs, etc.)

States typically allow registration in person, by mail, and increasingly, online. In many states, registrants may be able to complete the entire process online (particularly when you are using a state-issued photo ID from that state to register). View a list of states that allow full online registration. However, in some cases, you will need to take additional steps like printing, signing, and mailing forms, submitting copies of IDs, etc.

Because of this, we encourage you to take advantage of NU Votes’ in-person voter registration assistance, where you can be sure to complete the process fully and accurately and get any questions answered. If you prefer to use the online Voter Registration Tool to register yourself (or at least to start the process), NU Votes can assist with printing, mailing, copies of IDs, etc., as needed. Or, the tool will give you instructions on how to complete the process on your own if you wish.

What identification do I need to register?

When you are registering by mail or online, most states will request an in-state driver’s license or state-issued ID number (do not use an out-of-state number), OR if you do not have one, the last four digits of your social security number. Some states may request or require your full social security number, or may request or require both a license or state ID number and the last four digits of your social security number.

If you are registering in person, or the first time you vote if you registered by mail, you may also be asked to show ID, including something that proves your identity (a driver’s license, state ID, passport, birth certificate, or social security card) and something that shows your current address (postmarked mail, a utility bill, a bank or credit card statement, a pay stub, a lease or rental contract, etc.).

I am currently registered at my campus address. Can I change my registration to my permanent address?

Yes. Students have a legal right to register and vote at either their permanent address or their campus address.

Voting – If I Will Be In State During My State's Primary

Where do I vote? Where is my polling place? When are the polls open?

To find your polling place, use the Polling Place Locator for your state.

Polling places generally open between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m., and close between 6 p.m. and 9 p.m. For the specific hours for your state, see Polling Place Hours by State.

What do I need to bring to vote? What can I take with me into the voting booth?

Most states request or require some form of ID in order to vote, either for all voters, or only those who registered by mail and are voting for the first time at their current registration address. As a result, while it may not be required, we recommend bringing ID (including a current photo ID and proof of residence) when you go to vote. For the specific rules for your state, see Voter ID Requirements by State.

As a general rule, you are allowed to bring notes or sample ballots with you to the voting booth and to look up information on your phone. However, in some states, you are NOT allowed to take photos of your ballot or inside the polling place.

What if I don’t have my Voter Registration Card?

You do NOT need your Voter Registration Card to vote. However, you must be registered. Make sure to verify your registration status through our online Check Registration Tool, or through your local election authority. If you run into a problem, don’t panic – you may still have time to register.

Voting – If I Will Be Out of State During My State's Primary

Can I vote early? Can I vote by mail?

For presidential primaries, it depends on the state. In most cases, yes. However, in some states, party caucuses or conventions may take place in person without an option for voting early or voting by mail, or may be limited to party leaders. Still, for most presidential primaries and all state primaries:

Most states allow early voting (or in-person absentee voting), from 3 days up to 30 or even 45 days prior to each election. To view early voting options for your state, see Early Voting Availability by State (find your state and click ‘Check Deadlines’).

All states allow absentee voting for voters who request it. Some states may require voters to provide an excuse, but even in those states, there will always be an excuse applicable to students (such as being a student by occupation, temporarily living or traveling outside the jurisdiction on Election Day, or being otherwise unavoidably absent or unable to make it to the polling place on Election Day).

In most states, voters must request an Absentee Ballot for each election. Some states offer a permanent absentee ballot list; once a voter is added to this list, they will receive an absentee ballot for each election automatically. And a few states conduct their elections entirely by mail for all voters.

To view absentee voting or vote by mail options for your state, see Absentee Ballot Deadlines by State (find your state and click ‘Check Deadlines’).

How do I request an absentee ballot?

First, make sure there is still time to request an absentee ballot before your state’s deadline. Most states recommend submitting your absentee ballot request at least one month prior to the election, though some states will continue to accept absentee ballot requests one week prior or sometimes even less. View Absentee Ballot Deadlines by State (find your state and click ‘Check Deadlines’). You are encouraged to apply as early as possible to make sure you receive your ballot on time.

To request an absentee ballot for any state, come to the Center for Civic Engagement (1813 Hinman Ave in Evanston, Monday–Friday 9am–5pm), or use our online Absentee Ballot Request Tool. (If the submission of paper forms or any other steps are required, NU Votes can assist with printing, mailing, copies of IDs, etc.)

States typically allow absentee ballot requests to be submitted in person, by mail, and sometimes by fax or email. In some states, registered voters may be able to request absentee ballots entirely online. However, in most cases, you will need to take additional steps like printing, signing, and mailing forms, submitting copies of IDs, etc.

Because of this, we encourage you to take advantage of NU Votes’ in-person voter registration assistance, where you can be sure to complete the process fully and accurately and get any questions answered. If you prefer to use the online Absentee Ballot Request Tool (at least to start the process), NU Votes can assist with printing, mailing, copies of IDs, etc., as needed. Or, the tool will give you instructions on how to complete the process on your own if you wish.

Once you submit your request, you will be mailed a paper ballot to the address you choose, to complete, sign, and return. In some cases, you may be able to download a ballot, or receive one via fax or email.

How do I return my absentee ballot?

Completed absentee ballots can typically be returned by mail or in person, though some states may allow ballots to be returned by fax or email. Your ballot should provide instructions on how, where, and when to return it.

In most states, absentee ballots must be received by the time polls close on Election Day; however, some states may have slightly earlier deadlines, and some states may continue to accept absentee ballots as long as they are postmarked by Election Day. View Absentee Ballot Deadlines by State (find your state and click ‘Check Deadlines’). You are encouraged to return your ballot at least one week prior to Election Day to ensure it is received on time.

If you need help with mailing or simply need an envelope and a stamp, come to the Center for Civic Engagement (1813 Hinman Ave in Evanston, Monday–Friday 9am–5pm).

Where is my absentee ballot? What if I didn’t receive my absentee ballot?

If you have requested an absentee ballot but have not yet received one, contact your local election authority to confirm that they received your absentee ballot application and verify there were no errors in processing.

Some states will allow you to track your absentee ballot online. In the US Vote Foundation’s Election Officials Directory, click ‘State Lookup Tools’ at the bottom of the page, and look for a link next to ‘Where Is My Ballot?.’ If your state does not offer an online tool, find the contact information for your local election authority and contact them directly via phone or email.

If you run into trouble (e.g. they say they have mailed you a ballot but you have not received it), they should be able to help you identify a variety of alternative solutions, which will vary by state.

What’s On My Ballot? How Do I Decide?

In Illinois
In Other States

Educating Yourself – Illinois

What's on my ballot?

The Illinois Primary Election will determine the Democratic and Republican Party nominees for the General Election in November for President, U.S. Senator and Representatives, Illinois State Senators and Representatives, county officials, and more.

To view a sample ballot, enter your address into the Voter Information Search Tools for Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County) or Chicago.

You can also use a resource like BallotReady, Ballotpedia, or Vote411 to view your sample ballot and research detailed, nonpartisan information on candidate profiles and positions at the same time.

How can I educate myself? How do I decide who to vote for?

We recommend reviewing candidates’ websites and candidate questionnaires, reading local news articles, and attending or viewing candidate debates and forums before voting.

Use a resource like BallotReady, Ballotpedia, or Vote411 to research detailed, nonpartisan information on each candidate’s profiles and positions.

Review candidate questionnaires and editorial board endorsements by local news media such as the Chicago Sun Times and the Chicago Tribune. Also check whether local parties or political organizations you are aware of or involved with have made endorsements. For judges, consider local bar association recommendations.

Do I have to vote for every office on the ballot?

No! If you don’t feel sufficiently informed about a particular office, set of candidates, or issue, you can choose to leave that category blank. This does not invalidate your ballot – your other selections will still be counted.

How can I get more involved?

Consider volunteering for a candidate’s campaign (visit your preferred candidate’s website to learn more) or working as an Election Judge at a polling place in Evanston (or anywhere in suburban Cook County) or Chicago on Election Day.

Sources & Additional Resources

Evanston City Clerk – Registration & Voting Information (Evanston)
Cook County Clerk – Registration & Voting Information (Suburban Cook County)
Chicago Board of Elections – Registration & Voting Information (Chicago)
Illinois State Board of Elections – Registration & Voting Information (Illinois)
BallotReady – Sample Ballots & Voter Guides (All 50 States)
BallotpediaElection & Voting Information, Sample Ballots & Voter Guides (All 50 States)
Vote411Sample Ballots & Voter Guides (All 50 States)
Vote.org – Registration & Voting Information (All 50 States)
National Association of Secretaries of State – Election & Voting Information (All 50 States)
National Conference of State Legislators – Election & Voting Information (All 50 States)
US Vote Foundation – Election & Voting Information (All 50 States)

Other Questions?

If you have additional questions about registration or voting, please contact your local election authority. You can also stop by the Center for Civic Engagement (1813 Hinman Ave), email us at nuvotes@northwestern.edu, call us at 847-467-3047, or message us on Facebook or Twitter, and we will do our best to assist you.

Educating Yourself – Other States

What's on my ballot?

The upcoming primary election(s) in your state will determine the major party nominees for the General Election in November for President and a number of federal, state, and local offices. Depending on your state, this might include U.S. Senator and Representatives, Governor, other state executives and legislators, and more.

You can typically view a sample ballot on your local election authority’s website. In the US Vote Foundation’s Election Officials Directory, click ‘State Lookup Tools’ at the bottom of the page, and look for a link next to ‘Can I View My Sample Ballot?.’ Or use a resource like BallotReady, Ballotpedia, or Vote411 to view a sample ballot and research detailed, nonpartisan information on candidate profiles and positions at the same time.

How can I educate myself? How do I decide who to vote for?

We recommend reviewing candidates’ websites and candidate questionnaires, reading local news articles, and attending or viewing candidate debates and forums before voting.

Use a resource like BallotReady, Ballotpedia, or Vote411 to research detailed, nonpartisan information on each candidate’s profiles and positions.

Review candidate questionnaires and editorial board endorsements by local newspapers. Also check whether local parties or political organizations you are aware of or involved with have made endorsements. For judges, consider local bar association recommendations.

Do I have to vote for every office on the ballot?

No! If you don’t feel sufficiently informed about a particular office, set of candidates, or issue, you can choose to leave that category blank. This does not invalidate your ballot – your other selections will still be counted.

How can I get more involved?

Consider volunteering for a candidate’s campaign (visit your preferred candidate’s website to learn more) or working at a polling place on Election Day (contact your local election authority to learn more).

Sources & Additional Resources

BallotReady – Sample Ballots & Voter Guides (All 50 States)
Ballotpedia – Election & Voting Information, Sample Ballots & Voter Guides (All 50 States)
Vote411Sample Ballots & Voter Guides (All 50 States)
Vote.org – Registration & Voting Information (All 50 States)
National Association of Secretaries of State – Election & Voting Information (All 50 States)
National Conference of State Legislators – Election & Voting Information (All 50 States)
US Vote Foundation – Election & Voting Information (All 50 States)

Other Questions?

If you have additional questions about registration or voting, please contact your local election authorityYou can also stop by the Center for Civic Engagement (1813 Hinman Ave), email us at nuvotes@northwestern.edu, call us at 847-467-3047, or message us on Facebook or Twitter, and we will do our best to assist you.

Be A Part of Northwestern's Voting Culture.

Please note: The information here was compiled from publicly available sources in an effort to help provide students with non-partisan information that they may need to know in order to register correctly and vote in upcoming elections. Northwestern University does not endorse or oppose any candidate or organization in connection with this or any other political campaign or election. Students are responsible for working with their own local election officials to ensure their own correct registration and to verify local laws and policies about voting in their respective districts.